Official Name: Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası)
Climate: 9 climate zones (out of 12 existing in the world) ranging from temperate to subtropical; forests, meadows, and alpine tundra in the mountains. The average temperature is 55 ºF (13 °C).
Geographic Location: Eastern South Caucasus region. The Republic of Azerbaijan is located between longitude 44° and 52° E and latitude 38° and 42° N. It borders Russia (390 km), Georgia (480 km), Armenia (1007 km), Turkey (15 km) and Iran (765 km); 800 kilometers of the Caspian Sea coastline belongs to Azerbaijan.
Time Zone: UTC/GMT + 4 hours (Los Angeles + 12 hours; Washington, D.C. + 9 hours; Houston, Chicago + 10 hours)
Area: 86,600 sq. km. (33,436 sq. mi.), of which approximately 54.9 % is arable, 12 % is forested and 1.7% is rivers and lakes.
Capital: Bakı, with a population of more than 2.5 million. The city is located on the shores of the Caspian Sea.
Major Cities: Gəncə (population approx. 314,000); Sumqayıt (pop. approx. 312,000); Mingəçevir (pop. approx. 97,000); Naxçıvan (pop. approx. 83,000); Şirvan (pop. approx. 78,000).
Population and Minorities: 9.9 million inhabitants (2017).
Minorities: Avars, Armenians, Georgians, Jews, Kurds, Lezgins, Russians, Tsakhurs, Talysh, Tatars, Tats, Turks, Udis, Ukrainians and others.
Literacy Rate: 99.5 % (UN Human Development Report)
Life Expectancy: Men: 70.9 years -Women: 76.1 years
Religion: Azerbaijan is secular republic with a highly inclusive and tolerant society. Approximately 93% of the country’s inhabitants have an Islamic background. About 5% are Christian. The remainder of the population belongs to various religions. Around 30,000 Jews live in Azerbaijan.
Official Language: Azerbaijani, written again in Latin script since 1992; since 2001 Latin script is the only script to be used in Azerbaijan.
National Holiday: Republic Day, May 28 (to commemorate the proclamation of the first Azerbaijani republic – the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan –, which existed from 1918 until 1920).
Restoration of Independence Day: October 18, 1991
Form of Government: A republic, presidential democracy with a unicameral parliament.
Head of State: President Ilham Aliyev (elected 2003, 2008, 2013)
Parliament: Milli Majlis (Milli Məclis, the National Assembly), unicameral parliament of 125 members elected for 5-year terms; most recent election November 1, 2015.
Administrative Structure: Central government, 66 districts, 77 cities and towns, 258 townships, 4257 rural settlements.
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic: The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) has been an autonomous republic since 1924. It has an area of 5,500 square kilometers and a population of approximately 400,000. The capital is the city of Naxçıvan. The Autonomous Republic has its own constitution, its own parliament called the Ali Məclis (Supreme Assembly), and its own government. Chairman of the Supreme Assembly is the highest position in Naxçıvan.
Membership in International Organizations: United Nations, Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Organization for Democracy and Economic Development -GUAM, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Non-Aligned Movement, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Economic Cooperation Organization, Commonwealth of Independent States, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Partnership for Peace; European Neighborhood Policy, Eastern Partnership; etc.
GDP Share in the South Caucasus: Azerbaijan accounts for 80% of the South Caucasus’s economy.
Currency Reserves: $41 billion (up from $1.62 bln in 2003)
Investments (foreign and domestic): $220.4 billion (1995-2015)
Currency: 1 Manat (AZN) = 100 Gepiks 1 AZN = 0.59 USD (September 2017)
Poverty Rate: 5% (down from 49% in 2001)
Unemployment Rate: 5.0 % (2017)
Industries: Oil and gas production and refining; machine tools; chemicals; textiles; food processing; iron and steel; aluminum; gold mining etc.
Agriculture: Farming is the second largest economic sector. As a result of land reform and privatization almost all agricultural operations and arable land are now in private hands. Agricultural products include cotton, wine, silkworm culture, fruit and grain production, various vegetables, rice, tea, tobacco, raising sheep and cattle, etc.
Natural Resources: Oil, natural gas, iron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, marble, cadmium, cobalt, iron pyrite, rock salt, mercury, bauxite etc.
International Country Code: Azerbaijan: +994; Bakı: +994 12
January 1 and 2 – New Year Holiday
March 8 – International Women’s Day
March 20 - 24 – Novruz National Spring Holiday
May 9 – Victory over Fascism Day
May 28 – Republic Day
June 15 – National Day of Salvation
June 26 – Armed Forces Day
November 9 – National Flag Day
December 31 – Day of Solidarity of Azerbaijanis
Religious Holidays: Ramadan and Eid ul-Adha (Festival of Sacrifice) are celebrated annually for two days each.